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A1 vs. A2 Milk — Does It Matter?

A1 vs. A2 Milk
A1 vs. A2 Milk

A1 vs. A2 Milk: Does It Matter?

Milk types A1 and A2 have different amounts of protein, particularly casein. A2 may be healthier, according to some studies, but this is still under investigation.
The type of cow that produced the milk may have an impact on its health.
A2 milk is currently promoted as being healthier than regular A1 milk.
Supporters claim that A2 is healthier overall and easier to digest for those who are lactose intolerant.
The science underlying A1 and A2 milk is examined objectively in this article.

What do the terms mean?

About 80% of the total protein in milk is made up of the casein protein family.
Milk contains a variety of casein types. The second-most common protein is beta-casein, which comes in at least 13 different forms.
The following are the top two types:
  • A1 beta-casein: The amount of A1 beta-casein in milk produced by breeds of cows with northern European ancestry is typically high. These breeds include the British Shorthorn, Ayrshire, and Holstein.
  • A2 beta-casein: Breeds from the Channel Islands and southern France tend to produce milk that is high in A2 beta-casein. Guernsey, Jersey, Charolais, and Limousin cows are among them.
A2 milk only contains A2 beta-casein, whereas regular milk contains both A1 and A2 beta-casein.
According to some studies, A2 beta-casein is a safer option, and A1 beta-casein may be harmful.
As a result, there is some public and academic discussion regarding these two types of milk.
The A2 Milk Company produces and sells A2 milk, which is free of A1 beta-casein.


Beta-casein protein is present in milk in different forms (A1 and A2). According to some studies, A2 milk might be the healthier option.

Adverse claims about the A1 protein

A1 beta-casein digestion results in the release of the opioid peptide beta-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7).
It explains why some people think A2 milk is healthier than regular milk.
BCM-7 may be related to type 1 diabetes, heart disease, infant mortality, autism, and digestive issues, according to some research groups.
Although BCM-7 may have an impact on your digestive system, it is still unknown how much of it is absorbed into your blood.
Healthy adults who consume cow's milk have not been found to have BCM-7 in their blood, according to studies, but infants may have BCM-7, according to some tests.
Although BCM-7 has been the subject of extensive research, its overall effects on health are still unknown.

Type 1 diabetes

The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is frequently made in children, and it is characterized by insulin deficiency.
Numerous studies suggest that consuming A1 milk as a child increases your risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
These studies, though, are observational. They can only show that those who consume more A1 beta-casein have a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
A1 beta-casein has been shown to have either beneficial or harmful effects on type 1 diabetes, according to some animal studies, which have found no difference between A1 and A2 beta-casein.
There haven't been any human clinical trials done yet to look into how A1 beta-casein affects type 1 diabetes.

Heart disease

 A1 milk consumption is associated with a higher risk of heart disease, according to two observational studies.
A1 beta-casein promoted fat buildup in damaged blood vessels, according to a rabbit experiment. When the rabbits ingested A2 beta-casein, this buildup was significantly reduced.
Potentially blocking blood vessels with fat accumulation could lead to heart disease. The results' applicability to humans has been questioned, though.
So far, two trials have looked into how A1 milk affects people's risk factors for heart disease.
There were no significant negative effects found in a study involving 15 adults at high risk of developing heart disease. Blood vessel function, blood pressure, blood fats, and inflammatory markers were all affected similarly by A1 and A2.
Another study discovered no discernible variations between A1 and A2 casein's effects on blood cholesterol.

Sudden infant death syndrome

 The most frequent cause of death in infants younger than 12 months old is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Unexpected infant deaths without a known cause are known as SIDS.
BCM-7 may play a role in some SIDS cases, according to some researchers.
In one study, the blood of infants who briefly stopped breathing while sleeping contained high concentrations of BCM-7. A higher risk of SIDS has been associated with this condition, also known as sleep apnea.
These findings suggest that some kids might be hypersensitive to A1 beta-casein, which is present in cow's milk. However, more research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.


Poor social interaction and repetitive behaviour are hallmarks of the mental illness autism.
Theoretically, peptides like BCM-7 may contribute to the emergence of autism. Studies, however, do not consistently back up all of the suggested mechanisms.
In comparison to breastfed infants, those who consumed cow's milk had higher levels of the hormone BCM-7, according to one study. Notably, while BCM-7 levels remained high in some infants, they rapidly decreased in others.
BCM-7 was strongly linked to a decreased capacity for action planning and execution in those who maintained these high levels.
According to a different study, consuming cow's milk may make autistic children's behavioural symptoms worse. However, other studies did not detect any modifications in behaviour.
Human trials have not yet specifically looked into how A1 and A2 milk affect autistic symptoms.


A1 beta-casein and the peptide BCM-7 may be related to diabetes, heart disease, autism, and SIDS, according to a few studies. Still, the findings are contradictory, and more study is required.

Digestive Health

 The inability to completely digest milk sugar (lactose) is known as lactose intolerance. This is a typical source of gas, bloating, and diarrhoea.
A1 and A2 milk both contain the same amount of lactose. Some individuals believe that A2 milk causes less bloating than A1 milk, though.
Studies suggest that milk sugars other than lactose may upset the stomach.
Scientists have hypothesized that some people's intolerance to milk may be caused by specific milk proteins.
One study of 41 people found that some people produce softer stools than others when drinking A1 milk, and another study of Chinese adults found that drinking A2 milk significantly reduced gastrointestinal discomfort after meals.
 Additionally, research on both humans and animals suggests that A1 beta-casein may exacerbate digestive system inflammation.


A1 beta-casein may make some people experience unpleasant digestive symptoms, according to mounting evidence.

The bottom line

The potential negative effects of A1 and A2 milk on health are still being discussed.
According to research, some people experience unpleasant digestive symptoms when consuming A1 beta-casein.
To draw any firm conclusions about the alleged associations between A1 beta-casein and other conditions, such as type 1 diabetes and autism, the evidence is still insufficient.
Having said that, if you have trouble digesting regular milk, A2 milk might be worth a shot.


Does A2 milk make a difference?

A2 milk causes less digestive discomfort as compared to A1.

Is A1 or A2 better?

A2 milk is marketed as a healthier choice than regular A1 milk.

Why is A2 milk so expensive?

It is produced in a limited amount.

Is Indian cow milk A1 or A2?

A2 milk

Is Amul milk A2?

It is the best quality A2 pure buffalo milk by Amul.

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